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  #1  
Old 21st November 2018
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Default Cast or forged

This piston looks cast to me. I say that due to the very granular appearance of the damaged surface. What does a forged piston look like when it fractures, I have no experience in broken pistons.
It looks like the inlet valve has hit this one, and I can find no reason for this other than the tacho drive pinion which was found in the bottom of the cam cover.

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Old 21st November 2018
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A forged piston will bend (malleable). That piston looks cast aluminum. Also, that appears to be a ring issue not valve contact.
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Old 21st November 2018
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i'd say its a seizure, if the oil pump pinion has come off then theirs no oil pressure.
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Old 21st November 2018
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My mistake! Sorry to mislead you guys, it was the tacho drive pinion, not the oil pump!
I've spent a coupla Hours checking out oil pumps and I've got pumps on the brain. I'll edit the above post. Doh.
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Old 21st November 2018
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the cast of old wasn't great but today's cast gets darn close to forged.
the piston of both if broken will display a grainy appearance since it is a structural failure that starts at the molecular level.
in the forged piston, the grain is forced to a more straight line grain and becomes stronger and can be thinner in the skirts. you can liken it to a piece of lumber and a piece of OSB. the fracture will be grainy but more tight nit and less jagged.
if this piston is heavy with thick skirts and more solid bossing in the under crown, probably cast.
there are +/-'s of both so do not rule out cast, millions are on the road without failures. as far as the cause of failure, loosing the oil pump sure didn't help, but, it could have gone back to install. if a piston is dropped, it shouldn't be used. also do not rule out detonation.
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Old 21st November 2018
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That is a heat related failure. Several possibilities include: not enough ring end gap causing ring ends to butt up.- Detonation from too much ign. timing or detonation from eccessive heat caused by retarded timing. Check ignition advance mechanism to see if it's rusted up.

Check for bent int. valve or bent pushrod, but I don't think that's the cause- looks more like heat damage to me. What's the other piston look like?
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Old 21st November 2018
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Lean is another possibility. Time to put on your Columbo overcoat.
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Old 25th November 2018
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I'm with MrMom
My initial thought is ring gap too small.
Top ring butted, is the ring blue from heat or bent/broken from jamming in the cylinder?
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